Un Mosièl de se Chinzie rRyetaniezi – III. Konjigatyejona pen Verbi, i-ii.

i. Tempis Narátevis

Tempis narátevis is a unique tense, as it is marked through inflection on the verb itself, rather than through auxiliaries. Although there are many conjugations hypothesised, it is easiest to consider there to be only two: regular and irregular. Verbs inflect for person and number. They may do this in two ways: imfliktátyejo şimplex, and imfliktátyejo komplex. [It should be noted that the words konjigátyejo, tempis, narátevis, verbu, şimplex, komplex and imfliktátyejo are all learned medieval borrowings from Latin, which explains their unusual appearance]

For regular verbs, simplex inflexion is straightforward:

Amár (to love) Kandár (to sing sth.) Pořár (to carry sth) Faulár (to tell a story, argue, reason) Fattár (to make)
1st s. amo kando pořo faulo fappo
2nd s. ama kanda pořa faula fappa
3rd s. am kamd poř fau fau
1st pl. amám kandám pořám faulám fattám
2nd pl. amát kandát pořát faulát fattát
3rd pl. amá kandá pořá faulá fattá

The pattern of suffixes should be clear. Fattár is partially irregular, due to stress, and there are sometimes slight alterations in the 3rd person singular form of the verb.

The complex inflexion is more difficult. This incorporates additional object marking. The synthetic suffixes are as follows (subject marking in rows, object marking in columns):

1st s. 2nd s. 3rd s. in. 3rd s. an. 1st pl. 2nd pl. 3rd pl.
1st s. -óz -ót -óc -ou -on -og -olo
2nd s. -ám -áz -ázec -au -an -ac -acho
3rd s. -áte -ác -ai/-az -an -ou -alo
1st pl. -ámme -ámte -ámzec -amzi -amiz -amic -amlo
2nd pl. -aíme -aíte -aízec -azi -atin -atiz -ailo
3rd pl. -ágn -ámd -ándec -andi -amno -amc -anco

Several things should be noted here. The marking of accents is not in accordance with the orthographic rules, as several accents are marked superfluously – this is a form of orthographical analogous levelling. All complex inflections trigger the infinitive root, in the few regular verbs, such as fattár, where this is different from the simple root. Many verbs have no complex inflection, either because they are intransitive (e.g. kamchár, to sing) or because, while semantically transitive, they take objects in the oblique (eg. faulár). The third person subject, third person animate object inflection has two forms – a non-reflexive and a reflexive.

Examples of these inflections:

fattác – they made it

amámme – we love me

pořamc – they carry you

Irregular verbs should probably be learnt individually, although there are some patterns:


(to write)


(to bring)

Kandrye (to say) Dvenyer

(to arrive)

Fasre (to make) Fover (to love)
1st s. egribo dro kano dvenyo faccho foio
2nd s. egribi drai kani dveni facchi fovi
3rd s. egroú dra kagn dviegn fac foi
1st pl. egroúmu dram kagnu dviním facím fovím
2nd pl. egrouti drat kandyi dvinít facét fovét
3rd pl. egrivue drague kanue dvenyue faćie fovie

Complex inflexions of irregular verbs would be so irregular that they are not used. Instead, complex prepositions are used, as with oblique verbs. For these, see a later chapter.



ii. Tempa Atáteva

The tempa atátiva are three tenses used prototypically with states, habits and statuses. They are the default tenses. The first two are formed with the pratećípejou atátevis and an auxiliary verb, while the third, the future, uses the pratećípejou fituris.

The pratećípejou atátevis is formed in the regular verbs with the suffix –ator; in the irregulars, it is more unpredictable:


(to write)


(to bring)

Kandrye (to say) Dvenyer

(to arrive)

Fasre (to make) Fover (to love)
Participle: egrippor drappor kandor dviendor fappor fotor

The pratećípejou fituris is simply the citation form of the verb.

The two appropriate auxiliary verbs are vanér (past and present) and serér (future). Unlike most verbs, vanér has its own past tense.


Present Past
1st s. vanyo vami sezo
2nd s. vane vamèti sede
3rd s. van vam sei
1st pl. vaném vamím serém
2nd pl. vanét vamèt serét
3rd pl. vánie vamér sédie

The auxiliary is placed in the second position, with the participle placed after a direct object and before an oblique phrase (though such phrases may be moved forward for emphasis).

Ve vami t’amator

I loved you

Le sei faulár kor’èza

He will argue with her

Tute vane pèz’egrippor!

You’re the one who’s writing it!

Viego sezo l’iphètilie drare.

I’m the one who will bring the letters




Un Mosièl de so Vokabolarye

It has probably been noticed that several of the examples verbs given are close to one another in meaning.

Amár is the default word for ‘love’, a strong affection. It can stand in place of any of the other words for ‘love’, but is also particularly used with siblings, close friends, former lovers and the like – it is a strong but equal relationship

Fover is the word for the protective love of a parent for a child, or of a husband for a wife – more generally, love of a dependent. It is also the appropriate word for love of a possession, or a pet. With social changes, it may now sometimes be used for the love of a wife for her husband. It is also used for physical actions – literally for stroking, but it can also be used for anything up to making love.

Kaucár is the word for feelings of affection, goodwill and concern toward others, less strong and particular than usually implied by amár. It is also the word for being charitable to those less well off.

Elalzár is the word for passionate, unreasoning romantic love. It is no longer encountered as frequently as once it was.

Adorár is the opposite of fover – it is the love for one greatly respected or looked up to. It is the love of wives for their husbands, children for their parents, and men for their heroes. It is also used for the romantic love of a young man for an older woman.

Tephár is the preparatory stage of love – a feeling of goodwill, excitement, and intellectual or physical attraction. It is commonly used for the emotion between a couple before they become lovers (though it persists afterward).


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