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Øynduyska nouns distinguish three cases – nominative, dative, and genitive – and two numbers (singular and plural).
Aside from a small number of common, irregular nouns, Øynduyska’s nouns can be classed as either strong or weak, and either masculine or feminine.
Masculine Strong Nouns
Mänlikja Stranga Nammwyrðer
Masculine strong nouns have unmarked nominative singulars and genitive singulars in -(e)s; dative and genitive plurals, and dative singulars, take -a. Nominative plurals occasionally take plain -a in archaic registers or fixed idioms, but more often take -(e)r, with umlaut. Some common, formal or poetic nouns show predictable vowel changes in the genitives: thus wǫlf, “wolf” has the genitive plural wulfa. There are often vowel changes between the nominative singular and other forms, particularly the dative and genitive singulars.
|Nominative||wǫlf; cøbh||wylfer; cøbhr|
|Dative||wolfa; cøbha||wǫlfa; cøbha|
|Genitive||wolfes; cøbhes||wulfa; cøbha|
Feminine Strong Nouns
Femenena Stranga Nammwyrðer
These nouns show unmarked nominative singulars, and -a in dative singulars and plurals, as well as in genitive plurals, all as in masculines. The nominative plural, however, is also formed in -a, unlike for masculines, while the genitive singulars are formed with the suffix -(e)r, and both this suffix and all three plural forms frequently undergo umlaut.
There are, again, often vowel changes between the nominative singular and all other forms.
|Nominative||stép; rąst; heord||stépa rästa; hirda|
|Dative||stépa; rasta; herda||stépa; rästa; hirda|
|Genitive||stéper; räster; hirder||stépa; rästa; hirda|
Weak nouns may be either masculine or feminine. Masculine weak nouns typically end in -a in the nominative singular, while feminine weak nouns typically end in a consonant. Masculine weak nouns take umlauting -a in the dative and genitive singulars, and non-umlauting -on in all three plural forms; feminine weak nouns take -en in every form other than the nominative singular. There is often vowel change between the nominative singular and all other forms.
|Nominative||nefa; tong||néfon; tungen|
|Dative||nifa; tungen||néfon; tungen|
|Genitive||nifa; tungen||néfon; tungen|
Use of Cases
Bruking av Tykjla
The ‘nominative’ case is used for both nominal subjects and nominal objects; pronominal objects, however, use the dative case.
All three cases are used extensively after particular prepositions. A few prepositions may take either the nominative or the dative case, with a consequent change in meaning.
The genitive is also used to create adjective-like modifiers, which may be compounded with a head noun, or else may precede it while remaining separate. Compounds are used to create a noun with a more specific meaning, as well as to form some proper nouns; separate modifiers may be used for this purpose also, or more generally for possession, but have an archaic, literary quality and are rarely found in colloquial speech outside of set expressions (prepositional constructions are preferred for possession more generally).
The genitive is also used for direct objects of perceptual verbs (sevh ech wulfa, “I see wolves”), and for direct objects of verbs of uncompleted actions (byld ech hussa, “I build parts of houses”, as contrasted with byld ech hysser, “I build houses”), as well for second arguments of some verbs (tell ech hem wulfa, “I tell him about wolves”), and for the subjects of certain embedded clauses (hóp ech ða treos ta grónn, “I hope the tree will grow”). Genitive nouns may also be used pronominally, with the modified noun absent: byld ech hussa may also be translated “I build the houses’ [ones]”, depending on context.
Next Up: Verbs!
Nu ta vylga: Verbema!