Øynduyska – XII (Periphrasis Summary)

The Øynduyska project continues…

Periphrasis: A Summary

Øynduyska makes extensive use of periphrastic constructions, which may easily confuse the learner. For convenience, tables are provided summarising forms and functions.

First, a brief summary of tense usage:

TENSE NAME FUNCTION
Aorist –        gnomic truths

–        present-tense performatives

–        present-tense habituals

–        present-tense occasioned clauses

–        future-tense fixed truths

–        most present and future modal clauses

–        [subjunctive form only] many future-tense subjunctives

Preterite –        past-tense performatives

–        past-tense habituals

–        past-tense occasioned clauses

–        ‘precursive’ past-tense events

Compound Past –        most past-tense events
Double Past –        prior past events with relevence to a past-tense temporal frame

–        remote past events

Imperfect –        interrupted past-tense events
Perfect –        past events with pressing present relevence
Experiential –        past events that occured at a non-specified time, disconnected from any ongoing temporal frame, without pressing prior relevence; particular for acquired experiences, missed opportunities, and generalised past states contrasted with the present
Bare Progressive –        present progressives (only a small number of verbs)
Conjunctive Progressive –        present progressives, particularly of a transitory or telic nature
Prepositional Progressive –        present progressives, particularly of a prolonged or atelic nature
Stative Predication (Present) –        ascribing current states, identities, roles, etc.
Transformative Predication (Present) –        ascribing states, identities, roles, etc., that a subject is adopting or acquiring
Stative Predication (Pasts) –        ascribing states, identities, roles, etc., that were current at the time of the temporal frame
Transformative Predication (Present) –        ascribing states, identities, roles, etc., that a subject was adopting or acquiring at the time of the temporal frame

Next, a table of tenses and their expression:

TENSE NAME AUXILIARY VERB FORM
Aorist –        none –        aorist
Preterite –        none –        preterite
Compound Past –        hebba (aorist) or senn (copula, aorist) –        past participle with (transitive, with hebba) or without (intransitive, with senn) y-.
Double Past –        hebba (preterite) or senn (copula, preterite) –        past participle with (transitive, with hebba) or without (intransitive, with senn) y-.
Imperfect –        stąnn (preterite) –        ay + preterite
Perfect –        stąnn (aorist) or ligga (aorist) –        afti + verbal noun, or van + verbal noun
Experiential –        senn (copula, preterite) –        at + verbal noun
Bare Progressive –        none –        aorist
Conjunctive Progressive –        stąnn (aorist) or ligga (aorist); or semantically appropriate other bare progressive –        ay + aorist
Prepositional Progressive –        stąnn (aorist), ligga (aorist) or sitta (aorist) –        at + verbal noun
Stative Predication (Present) –        senn (copula, preterite), stąnn (aorist), ligga (aorist), sitta (aorist) or vorstąnn (aorist); or lexically conditioned alternative bare progressive –        N/A, or past participle with y-
Transformative Predication (Present) –        becwem (aorist), getta (aorist), wørða (copula, aorist) or atrisa (aorist) –        N/A, or past participle with y-
Stative Predication (Past) –        hebba (aorist) –        stąnn (past participle), ligga (past participle), wørða (copula, past participle) or atrisa (past participle) + N/A or past participle with y-
Transformative Predication (Past) –        hebba (aorist) –        becwem (past participle), getta (past participle), wørða (copula, past participle) or atrisa (past participle) + N/A, or past participle with y-
Aorist Passive –        senn (aorist) –        past participle with y-
Preterite Passive –        senn (preterite) –        past participle with y-
Compound Past Passive –        hebba (aorist) –        senn (copula, past past participle) + past participle with y-
Double Past Passive –        hebba (preterite) –        senn (copula, past past participle) + past participle with y-
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3 thoughts on “Øynduyska – XII (Periphrasis Summary)

  1. Hans says:

    “case usage”?

  2. …apparently I’m too busy trying not to write ‘verb’ for ‘vowel’ and ‘vowel’ for ‘verb’ to be able to spot the other bizarre substitutions…

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