Verb Conjugation in Old Wenthish (1)

A break today from the usual trickle of book reviews: lots of verb tables! Today’s post outlines the verb conjugation system of Old Wenthish, a fictional Germanic language spoken on some fictional islands in the latter half of the first millennium. At least, this post deals with the strong verbs – weak verbs will require another post.

And yes, this is all stupidly complicated. Don’t blame me, blame Proto-Germanic…

[my goal here is actually developing modern Wenthish – I intend to put most of its content up on a dedicated blog. But in this latest revision of the language, I’m trying to do things Properly, which means step-by-step, which means I’m still more than a thousand years from even having the vocabulary to write an introductory headline for that blog. Much of this verbal conjugation will be completely lost in the further development of the language, so in that sense it’s sort of pointless; but since I’ve done it, I may as well show people.]

This probably isn’t as clear as it could be; if there’s anything you don’t understand, please ask!

 


 

VERB CONJUGATION

Verbs in Old Wenthish followed one of two distinct sets of paradigms: those of strong verbs, or those of weak verbs. There were also a handful of irregular verbs that did not closely follow either pattern.

 

Strong Verbs

Strong verbs can be divided into a large number of distinct classes, in which a degree of irregularity is also found. Howevr, the relevant suffixes are generally the same: -ād for the indicative present plural, -t for the indicative past 2nd person singular and -n for the indicative past plural; for the subjunctive present singular in the 1st person, and in the 2nd and 3rd persons, and -ēn in the plural, but –n in the past plural; -end to form the active participle and -ena to form the infinitive and the passive participle; the verbal noun is formed in -n. In addition, the 2nd and 3rd person singular present indicatives and the singular past subjunctives take an additional -i if the root is light (as does the imperative in Class IV), while the subjunctive past plural is similarly lengthened to -in in the case of light roots.

The general paradigm of suffixes is thus:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular
2nd Person Singular (-i) t
3rd Person Singular (-i)
Plural ād n
Subjunctive 1st Person Singular ō (-i)
2nd Person Singular ē
3rd Person Singular
Plural ēn -(i)n
Imperative  
  Active Participle end
Passive Participle ena
Infinitive ena
Verbal Noun n

 

However, in addition to these suffixes, strong verbs undergo a number of root changes: ablaut; consonant gradation; and secondary articulation. The main secondary articulation change is the palatalisation of the final clusters of the past subjunctive and the present indicative 2nd and 3rd persons, regardless of whether the -i in the suffix is expressed, and also of the verbal noun.

Consonant gradation is in the form of inherited grammatischer Wechsel, which has been extended by analogy to plosive consonants. As a result, all nouns showing final voiceless consonants in the infinitive and in the present indicative show voicing in the past indicative plural, the past subjunctive, and the passive participle (which in the case of a few verbs may cause homophony with other roots in these forms).

More substantial is the process of ablaut. Strong verbs may possess up to seven root vowels in alternation, resulting in seven ‘parts’: that of the indicative and subjunctive present 1st person singulars (1st part); that of the 2nd and 3rd present subjunctives, the present indicative plural, the active participle, the imperative and the infinitive (2nd part); that of the indicative present 2nd and 3rd persons singular and the verbal noun (3rd part); that of the indicative past singular (4th part); that of the indicative past plural (5th part); that of the past subjunctive (6th part); and that of the past participle (7th part). A small number of verbs also show an irregular form specifically in the imperative.

A final complication occurs predictably in the past indicative plural, and in the past subjunctive plural of verbs with heavy roots: in these, a root-final voiced fricative drops before the nasal suffix, lengthening (if possible) the preceding vowel; the same process also occurs to the verbal nouns of verbs with voiced fricatives in the root.

 

 

Class I verbs generally preserve the Proto-Germanic Class 1, and minus a number of roots ending in a fricative, which have become part of the new Class V. Class I can be divided into three subtypes: Ia comprise the great majority of verbs in the class; Ib is a subtype occuring where the verbal root ends in a velar; and Ic are unusual verbs sharing the properties of each, and with a root ending that disappears in some forms (a pattern of lenition also found in some Class IIa verbs).

Class I verbs are relatively straightforward, with only four alternating vowels: the ablaut pattern for Ia verbs is io-ī-ī-ā-i-i-i (as in all classes, actual orthographic vowels may differ to indicate adjacent secondary articulations); this becomes io-ē-ē-ā-ia-ia-ia in the velar subclass, while Ic verbs show io- ī-ī-ā-ia-ia-ia, with the additional irregularity of a 1st person singular subjunctive in ūi; all three types typically show final palatalisation in the first four parts, in addition to the usual sixth. The three subtypes are represented here by the verbs mīthena, ‘to shun’, strēicana, ‘to stroke’, and and wrīna, ‘to skew, to place awry’ respectively:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular mioth

mʲ^ioþʲ

māith

mʷ^aːþʲ

2nd Person Singular mīth

mʲ^iːþʲ

māitht

mʷ^aːþʲtʲ

3rd Person Singular mīth

mʲ^iːþʲ

māith

mʷ^aːþʲ

Plural mīthād

mʲ^iːþʲaːðʷ

mīun

mʲ^iːnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular miothō

mʲ^ioþʲoː

midi

mʲ^iðʲi

2nd Person Singular mīthē

mʲ^iːþʲeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural mīthēn

mʲ^iːþʲeːnʷ

midin

mʲ^iðʲənʲ

Imperative mīth!

mʲ^iːþʲ

 
  Active Participle mīthend

mʲ^iːþʲənʷdʷ

Passive Participle midena

mʲ^iðʲənʷa

Infinitive mīthena

mʲ^iːþʲənʷɑ

Verbal Noun mīthn

mʲ^iːþʲnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular strioic

sʲtrʲ^iokʲ

strāic

sʷtrʷ^aːkʲ

2nd Person Singular strēic

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲ

strāict

sʷtrʷ^aːçʲtʲ

3rd Person Singular strēic

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲ

strāic

sʷtrʷ^aːkʲ

Plural strēic

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲaːðʷ

striagn

sʲtrʲ^iəkʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular strioicō

sʲtrʲ^iokʲoː

strieg

sʲtrʲ^iəgʲ

 

2nd Person Singular strēicē

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural strēicēn

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲeːnʷ

striegn

sʲtrʲ^iəgʲnʲ

Imperative strēic

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲ

 
  Active Participle strēic

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲənʷdʷ

Passive Participle striagena

sʲtrʲ^iəkʷənʷa

Infinitive strēic

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲənʷɑ

Verbal Noun strēicn

sʲtrʲ^eːkʲnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular wrioih

wrʷ^ioçʲ

wrāih

wrʷ^aːçʲ

2nd Person Singular wrīh

wrʷ^iːçʲ

wrāiht

wrʷ^aːçʲtʲ

3rd Person Singular wrīh

wrʷ^iːçʲ

wrāih

wrʷ^aːçʲ

Plural wrīād

wrʷ^iːaðʷ

wrīun

wrʷ^iːnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular wrūi

wrʷ^yː

wrieg

wrʷ^iəɣʲ

2nd Person Singular wrīē

wrʷ^iːe

3rd Person Singular
Plural wrīun

wrʷ^iːnʷ

wrīn

wrʷ^iːnʲ

Imperative wrīh!

wrʷ^iːçʲ

 
  Active Participle wrīnd

wrʷ^iːnʷdʷ

Passive Participle wriegena

wrʷ^iəɣʲənʷa

Infinitive wrīna

wrʷ^iːnʷɑ

Verbal Noun wrīhn

wrʷ^iːçʲnʲ

 

 

Class II verbs are a large class, preserving the Proto-Germanic class well. There are three subforms: the typical IIa; IIb verbs that replace the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th parts with a long vowel; and a handful of IIc verbs in which more substantial vowel lengthening and monophthongisationhave occured due to the absence of a final consonant. Class II verbs, with the partial exception of IIb, display some of the most complex ablaut, but few secondary articulation shifts: palatalisation is seen only in the past subjunctive, not in the present indicative. IIc verbs show an unusual imperative and some doubling of nasals in suffixes. The ablaut paradigm is eo-eo-ia-ā-u-ui-o for IIa, with the first four parts replaced by ū for IIb, and ōe-ōe-ī-ā-ū-ūi-ō for IIc; IIc verbs furthermore show irregular eo in the imperative. The ā in the past tense generally indicates /aː/, but in a few irregularities (particularly before velars) may indicate /ɑː/.

The three subtypes are represented here by reofana (‘to rip, to rend’), dūcana (‘to dive, to dip’) and cōena respectively:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular reof

rʷ^eofʷ

rāf

rʷ^aːfʷ

2nd Person Singular riaf

rʲ^iəfʷ

rāft

rʷ^aːfʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular riaf

rʲ^iəfʷ

rāf

rʷ^aːfʷ

Plural reofād

rʷ^eofʷaːðʷ

rūn

rʷ^uːnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular reofō

rʷ^eofʷoː

ruibi

rʷ^yβʲi

 

2nd Person Singular reofē

rʷ^eofʷeː

 

3rd Person Singular
Plural reofēn

rʷ^eofʷeːnʷ

ruibin

rʷ^yβʲənʲ

Imperative reof!

rʷ^eofʷ

 
  Active Participle reofend

rʷ^eofʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle robena

rʷ^oβʷənʷa

Infinitive reofena

rʷ^eofʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun riafn

rʲ^iəfʲnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular dūc

dʷ^uːkʷ

dāc

dʷɑːkʷ

2nd Person Singular dūc

dʷ^uːkʷ

dāct

dʷɑːkʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular dūc

dʷ^uːkʷ

dāc

dʷɑːkʷ

Plural dūcād

dʷ^uːkʷaːðʷ

dugn

dʷugʷn

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular dūcō

dʷ^uːkʷoː

duig

dʷygʲ

2nd Person Singular dūcē

dʷ^uːkʷeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural dūcēn

dʷ^uːkʷeːnʷ

duign

dʷygʲnʲ

Imperative dūc!

dʷuːkʷ

 
  Active Participle dūcend

dʷuːkʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle dogena

dʷogʷənʷa

Infinitive dūcena

dʷuːkʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun dūcn

dʷuːkʲnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular cōe

kʷ^øː

kʷ^aː

2nd Person Singular

kʲ^iː

cāt

kʷ^aːtʷ

3rd Person Singular

kʲ^iː

kʷ^aː

Plural cōeād

kʷ^øːɑðʷ

cūnn

kʷ^uːnʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular cōe

kʷ^øː

cūi

kʷ^yː

 

2nd Person Singular cōē

kʷ^øːe

 

3rd Person Singular
Plural cōen

kʷ^øːnʷ

cūinn

kʷ^yːnʲnʲ

Imperative ceo!

kʷ^eo

 
  Active Participle cōend

kʷ^øːnʷdʷ

Passive Participle cōnna

kʷ^oːnʷnʷa

Infinitive cōena

kʷ^øːnʷɑ

Verbal Noun cīn

kʲ^iːnʲ

 

Class III verbs represent a dramatic aggregation of classes, comprising most of the third, fourth and fifth Proto-Germanic classes. The original ablaut of the old Class 3 has largely been preseved, and as a result the new Class III shows a common (though not universal) a-u-ui-o paradigm for the fifth through eighth parts. However, the new class can be divided into four phonologically-predictable subtypes: IIIa verbs (whose roots in a cluster or a velar) have ea-ea-ie in the first three parts; IIIb verbs (whose roots end in a single consonant that is not a sonorant or a velar) show e-e-i; IIIc verbs (whose roots end in a single non-nasal sonorant) have the pattern eo-e-i; and IIId verbs reduce the first three parts all to i, while raising the seventh part to u. IIIc verbs have a further irregularity, as their verbal nouns show ia (invariably orthographically ie to indicate the following palatalisation), instead of the expected plain i. The a in the past tense represents /ɑ/. Here, IIIa is represented by the verb healpena, ‘to help’; IIIb by uebena, ‘to weave’; IIIc by berena, ‘to carry’; and IIId by swiummena, ‘to swim’:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular healp

hʷ^eəlʷpʷ

halp

hʷ^ɑlʷpʷ

2nd Person Singular hielp

çʲ^iəlʲpʲ

halpt

hʷ^ɑlʷptʷ

3rd Person Singular hialp

çʲ^iəlʲpʲ

halp

hʷ^ɑlʷpʷ

Plural healpād

hʷ^eəlʷpʷɑːðʷ

hulbn

hʷ^ulʷbnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular healpō

hʷ^eəlʷpʷoː

huilb

hʷ^ylʲbʲ

2nd Person Singular healpē

hʷ^eəlʷpʷeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural healpēn

hʷ^eəlʷpʷeːnʷ

huilbn

hʷ^ylʲbnʲ

Imperative healp!

hʷ^eəlʷpʷ

 
  Active Participle healpend

hʷ^eəlʷpʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle holbena

hʷ^olʷbʷənʷa

Infinitive healpena

hʷ^eəlʷpʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun hielp

çʲ^iəlpʲnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular ueb

w^eβʷ

uab

w^ɑβʷ

2nd Person Singular uibi

w^iβʷi

uabt

w^ɑβʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular uibi

w^iβʷi

uab

w^ɑβʷ

Plural uebād

w^eβʷaːðʷ

uūn

w^uːnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular uebō

w^eβʷoː

ūuib

w^yβʲ

2nd Person Singular uebē

w^eβʷeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural uebēn

w^eβʷeːnʷ

ūūin

w^yːnʲ

Imperative ueb!

w^eβʷ

 
  Active Participle uebend

w^eβʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle uebena

w^eβʷənʷa

Infinitive uebena

w^eβʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun uīn

w^iːnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular beor

bʷ^eorʷ

bar

bʷ^ɑrʷ

2nd Person Singular biri

bʲ^irʲi

bart

bʷ^ɑrʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular biri

bʲ^irʲi

bar

bʷ^ɑrʷ

Plural berād

bʷ^erʷaːðʷ

burn

bʷ^urʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular beorō

bʷ^eorʷoː

buir

bʷ^yrʲ

2nd Person Singular berē

bʷ^erʷeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural berēn

bʷ^erʷeːnʷ

buirn

bʷ^yrʲnʲ

Imperative ber!

bʷ^erʷ

 
  Active Participle berend

bʷ^erʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle borena

bʷ^ɑːrʷənʷa

Infinitive berena

bʷ^erʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun biern

bʲ^iərʲnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular swiumm

sʷw^imʷmʷ

swamm

sʷw^ɑmʷmʷ

2nd Person Singular swimm

sʷw^imʲmʲ

swamt

sʷw^ɑmʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular swimm

sʷw^imʲmʲ

swamm

sʷw^ɑmʷmʷ

Plural swiummād

sʷw^iumʷmʷɑːðʷ

swumn

sʷw^umʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular swiummō

sʷw^imʷmʷoː

swuimm

sʷw^ymʲmʲ

2nd Person Singular swiummē

sʷw^imʷmʷeː

 

3rd Person Singular
Plural swiummēn

sʷw^imʷmʷeːnʷ

swuimn

sʷw^ymʲnʲ

Imperative swiumm!

sʷw^imʷmʷ

 
  Active Participle swiummend

sʷw^imʷmʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle swummena

sʷw^umʷmʷənʷa

Infinitive swiummena

sʷw^imʷmʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun swimn

sʷw^imʲnʲ

 

Class IV verbs do not represent many if any of the original Proto-Germanic class of this name. Instead, they comprise primarily the old j-stem Class V and Class VI verbs, with some additional Class III, IV and V verbs that have drifted into this class. Class IV is numerically minor, although it includes several highly important verbs. The class comprises two, rather diverse subtypes: IVa verbs show the paradigm i-i-i-a-ō-ō-e (where a may represent either /a/ or /ɑ/), with the exception of the verb sittena (which shows ā (/ɑː/) in its fifth and sixth parts), while IVb verbs instead show e-e-e-a-ō-ō-a, where a may indicate either /a/ or /ɑ/, and e typically represents /ɛ/ but in some verbs instead represents /e/. The class is also characterised by a pattern of root-final consonant doubling in some forms. It is represented here by sittena, ‘to sit’ (IVa) and sceppena (‘to shape’) [note that the lack of grammatischer Wechsel in sittena is irregular]:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular sitt

sʲ^itʲtʲ

sat

sʲ^atʷ

2nd Person Singular siti

sʲ^itʲi

satt

sʲ^atʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular siti

sʲ^itʲi

sat

sʲ^atʷ

Plural sittād

sʲ^itʲtʲaːðʷ

sātn

sʲ^ɑːtʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular sittō

sʲ^itʲtʲoː

sāit

sʲ^ɑːtʲ

2nd Person Singular sittē

sʲ^itʲtʲeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural sittēn

sʲ^itʲtʲeːnʷ

sāitn

sʲ^ɑːtʲnʲ

Imperative   siti!

sʲ^itʲ

 
  Active Participle sittend

sʲ^itʲtʲənʷdʷ

Passive Participle sātena

sʲ^ɑːtʷənʷa

Infinitive sittena

sʲ^itʲtʲənʷɑ

Verbal Noun sitn

sʲ^itʲnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular scepp

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲpʲ

scap

sʲkʲ^ɑpʷ

2nd Person Singular scepi

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲi

scapt

sʲkʲ^ɑpʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular scepi

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲi

scap

sʲkʲ^ɑpʷ

Plural sceppād

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲpʲaːðʷ

scōbn

sʲkʲ^oːpʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular sceppō

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲpʲoː

scōib

sʲkʲ^oːbʲ

2nd Person Singular sceppē

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲpʲeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural sceppēn

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲpʲeːnʷ

scōibn

sʲkʲ^oːbʲnʲ

Imperative   scepi!

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲi

 
  Active Participle sceppend

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲpʲənʷdʷ

Passive Participle scabena

sʲkʲ^ɑbʷənʷa

Infinitive sceppena

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲpʲənʷɑ

Verbal Noun sceipn

sʲkʲ^ɛpʲnʲ

 

Class V verbs are a new class, formed chiefly from old Class III verbs ending in clusters of a nasal and a fricative (or voiced stop), although a number of other verbs have drifted into this class also, particularly from the old Class I, with which they have much in common. Notably, however, not only do they lack the unusual palatalisation in the 4th part found in Class I verbs, they also lack the more standard palatalisation found in most classes in the 6th part. The ablaut paradigm is io-ī-ī-ā-ū-ū-ū. They are represented here by sīthena, ‘to travel’:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular sioith

sʲ^ioþʲ

sāth

sʲ^aːþʷ

2nd Person Singular sīth

sʲ^iːþʲ

sātht

sʲ^aːþʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular sīth

sʲ^iːþʲ

sāth

sʲ^aːþʷ

Plural sīthād

sʲ^iːþʲaːðʷ

sūdn

sʷ^uːðʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular sioithō

sʲ^ioþʲoː

sūd

sʷ^uːðʷ

 

2nd Person Singular sīthē

sʲ^iːþʲeː

 

3rd Person Singular
Plural sīthēn

sʲ^iːþʲeːnʷ

sūdn

sʷ^uːðʷnʲ

Imperative sīth!

sʲ^iːþʲ

 
  Active Participle sīthend

sʲ^iːþʲənʷdʷ

Passive Participle sūdena

sʷ^uːðʷənʷa

Infinitive sīthena

sʲ^iːþʲənʷɑ

Verbal Noun sīthn

sʲ^iːþʲnʲ

 

Class VI verbs largely preserve the original Proto-Germanic class, though with a considerable number of additions. They follow the ablaut paradigm a-a-e-ō-ō-ō-a, where a represents /ɑ/; they show an irregular -u ending in the 1st person indicative singular. They are represented here by uacena, ‘to wake’:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular uacu

w^ɑkʷu

uōc

w^oːkʷ

2nd Person Singular ueci

w^ekʲi

uōct

w^oːkʷ

3rd Person Singular ueci

w^ekʲi

uōc

w^oːkʷ

Plural uacād

w^ɑkʷaːðʷ

uōgn

w^oːkʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular uacō

w^ɑkʷoː

uōig

w^oːkʲ

2nd Person Singular uacē

w^ɑkʷeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural uacēn

w^ɑkʷeːnʷ

uōign

w^oːgʲnʲ

Imperative uac!

w^akʷ

 
  Active Participle uacend

w^ɑkʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle uagena

w^ɑgʷənʷa

Infinitive uacena

w^ɑkʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun ueicn

w^ekʲnʲ

 

Class VII verbs comprise two subtypes: VIIa verbs represent the old Proto-Germanic 7c class, while VIIb verbs represent a merger of Proto-Germanic classes 7a, 7b and 7d. They have the ablaut paradigms a-a-a-ea-ea-ea-a (with a as /ɑ/ in each part except the third, in which it is /a/) and ā-ā-ā-ē-ē-ē-ā respectively. Notably, the default secondary articulation of VIIb verbs is unpredictable, and does not show alternation. These verbs are represented here by saltena, ‘to salt, to flavour’, and hlāpena, ‘to leap’, of the VIIa and VIIb subclasses respectively:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular salt

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷ

sealt

sʲ^eəlʷtʷ

2nd Person Singular sailt

sʲ^alʲtʲ

sealt

sʲ^eəlʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular sailt

sʲ^alʲtʲ

sealt

sʲ^eəlʷtʷ

Plural saltād

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷaːðʷ

sealdn

sʲ^eəlʷdnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular saltō

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷoː

seild

sʲ^eəlʲtʲ

2nd Person Singular saltē

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural saltēn

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷeːnʷ

seildn

sʲ^eəlʲtnʲ

Imperative salt!

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷ

 
  Active Participle saltend

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle saltena

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷənʷa

Infinitive saltena

sʲ^ɑlʷtʷənʷɑ

Verbal Noun sailtn

sʲ^alʲtnʲ

 

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular hlāp

hʷlʷ^aːpʷ

hlōp

hʷlʷ^oːpʷ

2nd Person Singular hlāp

hʷlʷ^aːpʷ

hlōpt

hʷlʷ^oːpʷtʷ

3rd Person Singular hlāp

hʷlʷ^aːpʷ

hlōp

hʷlʷ^oːpʷ

Plural hlāpād

hʷlʷ^aːpʷaːðʷ

hlōpn

hʷlʷ^oːbʷnʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular hlāpō

hʷlʷ^aːpʷoː

hlōp

hʷlʷ^oːbʷ

2nd Person Singular hlāpē

hʷlʷ^aːpʷeː

3rd Person Singular
Plural hlāpēn

hʷlʷ^aːpʷeːnʷ

hlōpn

hʷlʷ^oːbʷnʲ

Imperative hlāp!

hʷlʷ^aːpʷ

 
  Active Participle hlāpend

hʷlʷ^aːpʷənʷdʷ

Passive Participle hlābena

hʷlʷ^aːpʷəna

Infinitive hlāpena

hʷlʷ^aːpʷənɑ

Verbal Noun hlāpn

hʷlʷ^aːpʷnʲ

 

Finally, Class VIII verbs represent the original Proto-Germanic 7e class. They show a basic ablaut pattern ō-ō-ō-eo-eo-eo-ō. They are represented here by flōna, ‘to flow’:

    Present Past
Indicative 1st Person Singular flō

fʷlʷ^oː

fleo

fʷlʷ^eo

2nd Person Singular flō

fʷlʷ^oː

fleot

fʷlʷ^eotʷ

3rd Person Singular flō

fʷlʷ^oː

fleo

fʷlʷ^eo

Plural flōād

fʷlʷ^oːað

fleon

fʷlʷ^eonʷ

Subjunctive 1st Person Singular flō

fʷlʷ^oː

fleo

fʷlʷ^eo

2nd Person Singular flōē

fʷlʷ^oːe

3rd Person Singular
Plural flōēn

fʷlʷ^oːenʷ

fleoin

fʷlʷ^eonʲ

Imperative flō!

fʷlʷ^oː

 
  Active Participle flōnd

fʷlʷ^oːnʷdʷ

Passive Participle flōna

fʷlʷ^oːnʷa

Infinitive flōna

fʷlʷ^oːnʷɑ

Verbal Noun flōin

fʷlʷ^oːnʲ

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Some glimpses of a Romance language

Recently, I was toying with a Romlang (constructed Romance language, for those not into that sort of thing). Unfortunately, I’ve sort of lost interest for now, though I imagine I’ll pick it back up eventually. For now, I just thought I’d share a couple of glimpses for the curious. [no, they’re not absolutely from the same version, some of the orthography is a little different, etc].

First, a sample, from the Oaths of Strasbourg:

Bizmi maheb dhi Il-Dhu, è bizmi il-boblu grêsan è nos ḥâṣ muḍai
à zexṛ dhi la-dha aqîta, infant Il-Dhu um-dhuért il-hafṛ ed il-bodṛ,
ya vù adh is-yâmṛ miu aḥu aqît, il-Gaṛlú, fi azoud ed in qôha gdua,
cou omi deift fi dresu is-il-hôtir à hon aḥu, asìg iles um-wicrut aḷtrohic.
È con Louthr ya in-gacoṛdré âdun nun qe fi miu vouḷtádi
hobri miu aḥu aqît, il-Gaṛlú, dàmun aḷqun is-inflisrut.

(I won’t bore you with details of orthography, but to give a general idea: unstressed -i and -a are both schwa (but the former palatalises some preceding consonants); plain -h- is sounded when initial and utterance-initial or stressed, but is otherwise a glottal stop or just a marker of vowels in hiatus; h-dot is a velar fricative probably softening to /h/ intervocalically; other dotted letters may be velarised and will lower or back surrounding vowels). Q is just /k/ before front vowels, but is otherwise uvular. Etc).

And, never seen before, a verbal paradigm. This is the second-declension verb ZUCṚ, “to shine”:

Present Indicative:

zuċ zuqí zuct zuqìu zuqidí zucn

Past Indicative:

zusi zusí zust zusìu zusidí zusrìn

Pluperfect Indicative:

zusra zusrá zusret zusṛìu zusṛadí zusṛàn

Future Indicative:

zuqiṛu zuqiṛí zuqiṛét zuqṛivìu zuqṛividí zuqṛivn

Present Subjunctive:

zuċa zuċá zuċt zuċìu zuċadí zuċn

Past Subjunctive:

zusisa zusisá zusist zusisìu zusizdí zusisn

Future Subjunctive:

zuser zusrí zusiret zusirìu zusridí zusiren

Conditional:

zuqiṛìa zuqiṛìa zuqiṛìat zuqiṛìu zuqiṛiadí zuqiṛìan

(in transitive verbs, the future and conditional remain separable. Thus, duaṛ-m-ìat (“he would give me”), duaṛ-t-ìat (“he would give you”), etc.

Øynduyska – diachronics of declension

Sorry for the lack of updates in recent months. You know how it is – stuff. Also, I’ve been working at two massive blog projects that will probably never see the light of day. And I have two book reviews I need to do.

For now, though, it’s just a snippet of Øynduyska again – this time, how its noun declensions have developed over time. And yes, this does contradict (and supersede) the information in my last series about the language. Sorry!

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Øynduyska – some examples (1)

I’ve finished for now with Øynduyska, at least in the sense of posting a sketch on this blog. But I’m still translating some things and fiddling with some details, so I thought I’d share four very small (one line) translations, with explanations.

Yes, a couple of things are slightly different from in the foregoing discussion, and represent minor changes I’ve made since then. [or mistakes, of course…]

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Øynduyska- XVI (Questions, Imperatives, Catenatives)

Near the end of this first phase of Øynduyska.

 

Questions

Formal polar questions, like negations, generally require a modal auxiliary. This modal verb takes the inquisitive suffix -a, and is fronted: machta ðu ðam bylda? – “are you building it?” (lit. “might you be building it?”). Leading questions – less appropriate in formal speech, but common colloquially, additionally employ the Wackernagel particles ay (for positives) or ney (for negatives): machta ay ðu ðam bylda? – “you are building it, aren’t you?”

The chief exception to this pattern is the questioning of adverbs and of prepositional phrases. Such questions may follow the general structure – machta ðu ðam lawli bylda? – “are you slowly building it?” – but where they are the particular focus of the question it is also possible to front the element, and add an interrogative element to it directly. In the case of adverbs and some prepositions, this element is the particle an, directly following the adverb or preposition; for other prepositions, it is simply the suffix -a attached to the preposition. In the case of the preposition an, the preposition is entirely replaced by the interrogative preposition, . Thus, ina ða hussa, machta ðat ligga? – “does it lie within the house?”; ná ða bóka, machta ðat ligga? – “does it lie on the book?”; lawli an machta ðu ðam bylda? – “is it slowly, that you build it?”

Modal auxiliaries are not required, however, with copulas, which instead are fronted themselves, and themselves take the -a suffix: isa iss cąld? – “is ice cold?”

In colloquial speech, but rarely in formal contexts, polar questions may simply be formed from indicative statements, followed by a subordinate clause: typically an is? for present events, an was? for past events, or an są? or an bia? for certain requests. Thus, byld ðu ðam, an is? – “you’re building it, yes?” or byld ðu ðam, an są? – “build it, if you would?”

Content questions meanwhile require interrogative pronouns or adjectives. The basic interrogative pronouns are fann (“who?”) and fassa (“what?”), alongside fónn (“how?”), fara (“where?”), fiðr (“to where?” and “how much?”), fása (“from where?” and “why?”), fǫffáða (“why?”), fien (“with what instrument?”), and fanna (“when?”). Fann and fassa further have the dative forms fąna and famma respectively, and the shared genitive fössa, and may be preceded by prepositions: befós fössa? – “beside what/who?” Certain prepositions however combine with the pronoun to yield special fused forms: awann (“on/in whom?”) and awassa (“on/in what?”), athann (“to whom?”) and athassa (“to what?”), and beocha (“with whom?”).

In fann and fassa content questions, the questioned element is fronted, the interrogative taking the place of an argument, and any non-copular, non-modal verb sent to the rear: fössa ðu saoch? – “who/what did you see?”; fann ði saoch? – “who saw you?” Modal verbs and copulas instead show subject-verb inversion: fann is he? – “who is he?” However, this construction is regarded as somewhat brusque, and may easily be interpreted as accusatory or commanding; a more indirect phrasing is generally prefered. In more formal contexts, this employs a modal verb: fössa dorsht ðu sevha? – “who might you have seen?”; fann dorsht ðam bylda? – “who might have built it?” In more colloquial contexts, a relative construction may instead be used: fann was, sam ðam byldi? – “who was it that built it?”

Questions employing the other interrogatives likewise relegate the verb to the rear, but otherwise leave the clause unaltered: fanna ðu henn saoch? – “when did you see him?” The indirect constructions are not required here, although they may sometimes be employed for additional politeness, formality, or disambiguation. For example, the ambiguous beocha ðu henn saoch? – “with whom did you see him?” – may be rephrased as either beocha was he, sam ðu henn saoch? (“with whom was he that you saw?”) or beocha was ðu, sam henn saoch? (“with whom were you who saw him?”).

In addition to the interrogative pronouns, Øynduyska also possesses two interrogative adjectives, filie (“which?”) and fliecha (“what sort?”). These act similarly to fann and fassa, except that they are often accompanied by the noun they modify: filie macacca is, sam ða cuppa menn hav upybrǫka? – “which monkey is it who broke my cup?”

 

Imperatives

The imperative may be conveyed simply through intonation and subject dropping: byld ðam! – “build it!” Such a command is likely to be seen as urgent, but also as uncouth and impolite.

Alternatively, the preterite subjunctive form of the verb may be employed, for a more polite and gentle request: bylday ðam! – “build it!”

However, it is also common for requests and commands to be couched in periphrastic constructions. Most prominent are the relatively cold construction formed upon a prepositional predication – lieg het á ði ðam ta bylda, “you are to build it” (lit. “it is on you to build it”) – and the more graceful construction formed with ląthalątha ði ðam bylda, “let it be that you build it”. The lątha construction may also be used in the third person (singular or plural), or in the first person plural, with jussive and cohortative forces respectively.

 

Embedding and Catenatives

Some Øynduyska verbs are capable of forming, in theory, chains, by taking another verb as their object, or as part of their object.

In such a situation, the embedded verb is placed into the infinitive, preceded by the preposition ta, and it is preceded by its subject and object, if any. The subject is dropped if it is identical to the subject of the matrix verb. If the matrix verb is transitive and takes objects in the nominative or genitive, the subject of the embedded verb will be placed in the genitive, if it is not also semantically a transitive object of the matrix verb, and in the nominative (or dative, for pronouns) if it is; if the matrix verb takes objects in the dative, however, the subject of the embedded verb takes the dative; if the matrix verb is separable, its preposition attaches to the subject of the embedded verb as though it were its object. If the matrix verb is intransitive, however, the subject of the embedded verb remains in the nominative (or dative). Thus, member ech av hem ta bylda, “I remember he builds” (with a separable verb demanding the dative), börr ech hem ta bylda, “I make him build” (in which the subject of the verb is also directly affected by the matrix verb), and varcweeð ech hem ta bylda, “I promise he will build” (with an intransitive matrix verb), but hóp ech henn ta bylda, “I hope he will build” (in which the matrix verb is transitive, but the subject of the embedded verb is not semantically its object, being unaffected by it).

This catenative structure is, for many verbs, contrasted with a ‘relative’ structure with sam and a subjunctive (member ech av hem sam he bylda, “I remember of him that he builds”; hóp ech sam he bylda, “I hope that he builds”). The catenative structure is generally preferred, with the relative structure typically reserved for emphasis, and for situations where more precision regarding tense and aspect is required. Also available is a ‘direct’ construction employing the cataphoric pronoun ðusmember ech av ðus: he byld – “I remember this of him: he builds”. The direct construction is even more emphatic, but commonly used in reporting speech.

An additional complication arises in the case of embedded questions. Here, the catenative construction must be employed, and employs a distinct set of pronouns, modified forms of the interrogatives: fanna and fassa become fa and fas and so forth. Thus, kną ech fa ta byld, “I know who builds” (or “I know who built”; tense and aspect are lost from embedded verbs).

Øyndusyka – XV (Coördinate, Subordinate and Relative Clauses)

Øyndusyka isn’t finished yet…

Coördinate and Subordinate Clauses

Attached to a main clause may be one or more additional, secondary clauses. In Øyndusyka, these fall into two types: coördinate clauses, and subordinate clauses.

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Øyndusyka – XIV (Negation, Topicalisation)

The Øyndusyka project begins to near its end, but not before a good deal more syntax gets presented…

Negation

Nominal negation is straightforward: the noun is placed into the genitive plural, and the preceding negator náva is employed: thus, náva hussa, “no house”.

Negation of verbs is more difficult. In general, the verbal negator precedes the verb, and this is seen unproblematically when object fronting has caused the verb to thrown to the back of the clause: ða huss ech ná byld, “the house, I didn’t build”. Copulas and modal verbs, likewise, have no difficulty in this respect, given their default second-position location, but must display inversion with their subjects: iss is háss, “ice is hot”, but ná is iss háss, “ice is not hot”.

However, where the verb is required to be the first element of a clause, it is impossible for it to be preceded by a negator. In these cases, a modal is employed as an auxiliary, with secondary negation on the main verb by means of the particle na; a wide range of modals are found in this function, particularly for events in the present (or future), often encoding an epistemological or evidentiary force – so, ná macht he ðam na bylda, “I am certain it is not possible for him to build it”, against ná cu he ðam na bylda, “it is possible he may not build it” or “I hear he may not build it”. Where no particular intent is present beyond negation, the modal ech dar is typically used in the aorist, progressive, or perfect: ná dar he ðam na bylda, “he doesn’t build it”. In other tenses, the modal dorsht is used: ná dorsht he ðam na bylda, “he didn’t build it”.

As in other modal expressions, it is typical to only use the aorist or preterite tenses, although other forms are on occasion found.

Where a verb is negated and has an indefinite object or subject, the indefinite argument must also be negated, with the particle na; in this case, negative agreement on the main verb is not required. Full negation with náva may also be used, with emphatic effect: ná dorsht ech na huss bylda, “I did not build a house”; ná dorsht ech náva hussa bylda, “I did not build any house” or “I did not build a house at all”. An even more emphatic alternative is to use nawt, with the genitive plural of the noun: ná dorsht ech nawt hussa bylda, “I have never built even a scrap of a house”. Nawt may also be used more generally as a negative indefinite pronoun, when agreement on the main verb is required: ná dorsht ech nawt na bylda, “I built nothing”.

An alternative method of verbal negation – or more strictly clausal negation – involves the Wackernagel particles nöt and nasa. These are used when making specific denials: the latter tends to be more specific than the former. Both trigger agreement on the object. Thus byld nöt ech na huss, “No, I don’t build a house”, and byld nasa ech na huss, “No, I don’t exactly build a house”, or “I don’t build a house in that way”. These constructions are more marked than the modal negatives.

 

Topicalisation

Where the subject of a clause is also its topic, it is typically found only as a pronoun in the clause itself, with the full noun or noun phrase attached (if necessary) either to the beginning or to the end of the clause. Typically, preposed topics indicate a change of topic, while postposed topics indicate continuity. Failure to reduce the subject to a pronoun typically indicates that the subject is not the topic, and represents new or surprising information.

Thus, breaka he ða cuppa up, ða tarb most likely indicates “regarding the bull, it breaks the cup” or “the bull breaks the cup”; ða tarb, breaka he ða cuppa up more likely indicates “whereas the bull breaks the cup” or “and as for the bull, it breaks the cup”. The more syntactically straightforward breaka ða tarb ða cuppa up instead implies the more marked “(it’s) the bull (that) breaks the cup”.

Objects are not dealt with in this way. Changes of emphasis toward discussing the object may sometimes by indicated where necessary by emphatic fronting of the object; objects that are established topics may be reduced to pronouns, but not with extraclausal full nouns adposed. If particularly necessary, periphrasis may be employed: breaka he ðat up, ða tarb – stąmm wi bi ða cuppa, “the bull breaks it – the cup, I mean” (lit. “he breaks it, the bull – we stand at the cup”).

Objects may also, where they are sufficiently clear from context, be simply elided entirely, but this may not occur when the object is the topic – in such cases, at least a pronoun must be found. Thus, upbreaka he, “he breaks (it/something)”, but breaka he ðam up, “he breaks (it/the thing we are talking about)”.

Postposed topics come between the core clause and any postposed adverbs, and usually come before postposed prepositional phrases: breaka he ðam up, ða tarb, befós ða treos, and breaka he ðam up, ða tarb, lawli.